Pectin, a plant cell polysaccharide, is mainly used in food industry for its gelling and stabilizing properties.
|Plant Source||Citrus Peel||Synonym|
|Main specification||Cas No|
|Used Herbal Part||Citrus peel||Grade||Foood grade|
|Solvent Part||Testing method|
|MF||Degree of esterification||50% 60% 70% 75%|
|Molecular Structure||Free Sample|
Product name: Citrus Pectin
Plant resource: Citrus Peel
Specification: HM-pectin(high methoxyl pectin) LM-pectin (low methoxyl pectin)
Appearance: White powder
CAS No: 9000-69-5
Molecular formula: C5H10O5
Solubility: Easy solute in water
Citrus Pectin Description:
Pectin, a plant cell polysaccharide, is mainly used in food industry for its gelling and stabilizing properties. In industrial application, pectin is widely extracted from citrus peel, and in some intances, apple pomace is also used. Lime and lemon are the preferred citrus species used in the extraction of pectin, while orange and grapefruit are used less often.
The major constituent of pectin consist of linear sequences of (1-4)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid (GalA) with some of the carboxyl groups esterified with methanol .Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide. Its composition and fine structure vary depend on the plant source and the extraction conditons applied. The fine structure of pectin deeply affects its functionality and applicability.
In the food industry, citrus pectin is mainly employed in the production of jams and jellies , confectionary products and bakery fillings. Pectin consist of a complex set of polysaccharides.
The proportion of GalA units that is methyl-esterified is one of the key parameters that determine the functional properties of pectin. Generally , commercial pectin preparations are divided into low-methoxyl(LM) (degree of methylation(DM)<50% and high-methoxuy(HM) (DM>50%) pectin.
HM pectin: Pectin with a high degree of polymerization is more viscous in solution than otherwise comparable pectin of lower degree of polymerization. The dependence of gel strength on the molar mass is more pronounced with breaking strength method than with non-destructive test methods. It seems highly plausible than with non-homogalacturonan portion kinds and melecules and prevents aligning as well as formation of a precipitate.
Such a gel is considered a three-dimensional network of pectin molecules in which the solvent (water) encompassing the co-solutes is immobilized, resulting in a system resisting deformation. The high sugar concern-tration creates condition of low water activity , which in turn promote chain-chain rather than chain-solvent interactions; whereas the acid lessens the negative charges on the carboxyl groups, thus diminishing electrostatic chain repulsion. Many factors influence the conditions of gel formation and strength, among them DM is a key factor. DM controls the rate of gelation and the gelling temperature. In general, increasing the DM leads to a fastergelation and higher gelling temperature. Moreover, at constant PH and co-solute concentration, the final gel strength increase with increasing DM. As the DM of HM-pectin decrease, a lower PH is required for gelation, although the apparent pk, increase due the decrease of DM.
obtained by controlled acid and alkali de-esterification but other means ,namely enzymes and ammonia , can be used. Because of the electrostatic nature of the bonds, LM-pectin is very sensitive to intrinsic parameters that can modify the environment of the carboxyl groups, such as the nature , distribution and amounts of substituents along the galacturonic backbone.
Pectin gelling properties .
The properties of pectin is strongly influenced by several factors, extracting factors, such as PH, ionic strength co-solute concentrations and temperature, influence the strength , texture and genera viscoelastic properties of pectin gels.
1, The major outlet for pectin is through food application, I eas a thichener and gelling agent in jams and jellies, bakery filling, glazing, fruit and milk beverages. The recent research reveal that pectin utilization for healthcare applications- as drug delivery, gene repair and tissue repair. The review presents the structure of citrus pectin and functionality , wth a special emphasis on acid dairy drinks.
Jam manufacturer is the main user of industrially extracted pectin, utilizing the ability of HM pectin to form a gel with sugar and acid- the so-called low ater-activity gels of sugar-acid-pectin gels. HM-pectin is also used in the confectionary industry for making fruit jullies and jelly centers, in fruit juices and fruit drink concentrates as a stabilizer and to provide mouth-feel. It is also used in fermented and directly acidified dairy drinks.
LM pectin: Native citrus is high degree methylated(HM pectin). LM pectin is generally